Re-mixing the revolution

Throughout 2011, activists uploaded photos and video of events in the Arab world. Much of this raw footage was re-mixed and set to music by other activists, expats, and artists. Re-mixing can be an excellent way to learn to curate and make sense of outside sources. And of course re-mixing is also subjective, so learning how to “read” and critique a mash-up of someone else’s footage is educational, too. What choices did the person doing the mixing make? What did they add (captions? older video?) and what did they leave out? What story are they telling?

Three Ways to Cut, Mix, & Mash YouTube Videos is a resource for teachers who want to bring these tools into the classroom. Educators might also be interested in 47 Alternatives to Using YouTube in the Classroom, especially in schools where YouTube is blocked.

Some examples of re-mixes from the Egyptian revolution:

The first YouTube video to go viral was this one, from Tamer Shaaban. This footage was all taken from the first 36 hours after the protests began on January 25:

Justin Mashouf produced this B-boy ode to the Middle East:

This is a mash-up to Somali hip-hop artist K’NAAN’s “Wavin’ Flag.” The video begins with Gamal Mubarak, President Mubarak’s son and presumed successor to the presidency, mocking the April 6 movement, the organization responsible for organizing the January 25 protests that set off the revolution. This is followed by a collection of some of the most iconic imagery from the next 18 days – uploaded by zynabon:

Carl Sagan’s Pale Blue Dot, uploaded by Torrey Meeks:

*If I have misattributed anything, please comment and I’ll correct it. I want to give credit to the orginal authors, but sometimes that’s difficult because links are passed around.

Arab Spring wiki for high school students

Media coverage of pro-democracy protests across the Arab world – collectively known as the Arab Spring – has captured the world’s attention. Amy Sanders (Social Studies teacher) and Cathy Wolinsky (Instructional Technology Integrator) at Yarmouth High School in Yarmouth, Maine, seek classroom partners for a collaborative study of the Arab Spring. The project, modeled after the Flat Classroom® Project, will begin in early October and last approximately one month. Utilizing the CHOICES Teaching with the News lesson, “Protests, Revolutions, and Democratic Change,” the project envisions students working in collaborative teams to learn more about the protest movements in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Bahrain. Students also will be asked to reflect on what they have learned and connect to their experiences with democracy. If you would like to join the project or would like more information, please contact Amy at

Background on Libya

Libyan history

The Qadhafi family

Libya and the U.S.

1980s & 1990s Overview – CNN
Note: In this clip Reagan refers to Qadhafi as a Muslim fundamentalist. At the time, Islam was less politicized, so usage of the term “Muslim fundamentalist” was even more slipshod than it is today. Although Qadhafi often drew upon Islamic rhetoric to rally Libyans, in the Arab world he is regarded as a secular dictator, not a Muslim extremist akin to Osama Bin Laden. It is crucial that students learning about the Middle East understand that these are leaders whose ideologies are not just “different,” but diametrically opposed to one another. A common misconception is that Bin Laden was a Muslim radical and so other Arab leaders must be Muslim-radicals-lite. In fact, they are political enemies. One of Al-Qaeda’s main objectives was to overthrow secular Arab regimes, which would include Qadhafi’s Libya. The actual uprising in 2011, however, was not motivated by Islam and was not led by Islamists.

This can be confusing to Americans because the U.S. has opposed both Islamist and secular regimes at different times, even as they were opposing each other. But attempting to simplify the issue by calling them all “Muslim fundamentalists” — as Reagan does — ignores one of the biggest sources of tension in the Middle East.

Older footage:

Ronald Reagan’s Address to the Nation on the Air Strike Against Libya
April 14, 1986

U.S. Bombs Libya 1986 – ABC News

Lockerbie news reports 1988

U.S. Outrage As Lockerbie Bomber Freed 2009

The 2011 Libyan uprising

Social networking & free speech

Ninety-four percent of American high school students use some form of social media. In this speech from re:publica in Berlin, Jillian C. York, Director of International Freedom of Expression at the Electronic Frontier Foundation, talks about the free speech and censorship policies of Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, Blogspot, and YouTube, and how they impacted activists in the Middle East. Each company starts with similar, and sometimes conflicting, interests:

1) an economic incentive to attract more users,
2) a legal and moral commitment to free speech,
3) a legal and moral objection to “offensive” content,
4) trouble defining what constitutes “offensive” content, and
5) limited staff (especially Arabic-speaking staff) to sort out problems on a case-by-case basis.

Each company handles this conflict somewhat differently, which is the subject of York’s speech and a subject high school students are qualified to judge and discuss, from their own experience, even if they haven’t been following political events abroad:

York also blogs about the “nym wars” (controversy over whether Google+ should ban anonymous and pseudonymous accounts) and describes what companies do right.

Libya and citizen journalism

The concept of state-controlled media may be unfamiliar to American students, especially students too young to remember the Cold War (when “Soviet propaganda” was a regular target of criticism from U.S. politicians and U.S. news networks). Most countries, including Western democracies, provide some government funding to the media. The question is not whether a country’s press is “free” or “censored,” but rather a question of scale — how much control over the media does the government exercise? Egypt, for example, had state-owned and -run newspapers and television stations, but it also had a thriving underground press, which was mostly overlooked by the government.

But Libya, alongside China, Iraq, and North Korea, was considered extreme in the level of control the government held over the media. This was true even before the Arab Spring. Once the uprising began in February, 2011, Qadhafi cracked down even harder: all foreign journalists were expelled from the country, internet and SMS services were limited, and the state-run television broadcast only pro-Qadhafi messages. In response, “citizen journalists” — ordinary Libyans using camphones and the internet — began recording events and distributing their message using whatever communication mechanisms they could find.

This Listening Post segment from Al-Jazeera, titled Libya: A media black hole, examines the role of citizen journalism. The first ten minutes are about Libya; the next 15 minutes look at citizen journalism in other countries, including Hungary, Bahrain, South Africa, and Burmese expats broadcasting from Norway.

For examples of citizen journalism from Libya, see, one of the first web sites to begin reporting on the uprising. On Twitter, see Feb17Libya and ShababLibya. Libya Al Hurra TV made headlines in March after Mohamed Nabous, one of its prominent bloggers, was killed by a sniper. He was 28.

Although citizen journalism is vital to the free exchange of information, it also raises questions of accuracy. Journalists reporting for official media outlets, such as CNN or Al-Jazeera, are bound by legal and ethical standards that citizen journalists do not have to follow. Can citizen journalism be trusted? Another Listening Post segment examines this issue. Again the first ten minutes are about Libya, followed by news from other countries:

Students should also understand that governments are not the only institutions that control a country’s media. The United States is rare even among Western countries in the extent to which the press and the government are independent from each other. Who, then, does fund newspapers and television stations in America? Some of the money comes directly from subscribers, but most of it comes from advertisers. This introduces new problems. In 1990, Gloria Steinem described the trouble with finding and keeping advertisers for Ms. Magazine. Corporate sponsors exercised too much control over the magazine’s content, so its editors went ad-free from 1990 to 1996. Ultimately this proved too expensive, the magazine was sold, and began accepting ads again.

The nonprofit group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting lists the members of the Board of Directors at major news networks and the corporations with which they are affiliated. How might this impact the type of stories that are covered in the United States, and the slant they’re given? How is corporate influence similar to, and different from, straightforward government control of the press? What are the alternatives?